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Jerceni rural municipality

HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION

Kaņepju ozols

District Ēvele has been mentioned already in 13th century.  After long struggles with Estonians, which were true inhabitants in this area, district  was conquered by Latvians. District Jerava was mentioned already in 13th century, but district  Ēvele was divided and Jērcēni got a name – Gercenhof  in 1560. In ancient descriptions district  Ēvele was also called Wohlfahrt. District was given as a present of Sigismunds Augusts to Hevelns -  Valmiera lord of the  manor. It is commonly accepted that this present is related to Lettic Jērcēni and Ķeiži territories.  Hevelni established a manor house which together with the district  took over Hevelni name. Exists opinion that before Hevelni landlords were Gercdorfs ,and there is a legend that in their emblem was showed a man with the sheepskin hat and there has also been houses called Jeri in the district .  Jērcēni ( also Kerstenhof) was established as a manor house next to Ēvele in 1560.

There are very avaricious news about Jērcēni in ancient times. Nothing is known about Ķeiži origin. More information is available around end of 1920s till 1940s when also in this small rural civil parish  as well as in whole country agriculture and manufacture were developing. There were 60 old households, 96 new households and 15 households of craftmen and others.

Industrial enterprises – watermills Gaujaskrāči together with saw mills owned by J. Brasliņš, as well as mills Kalna owned by J. Liepiņš.

Also several associations performed – Association of dairy producers Valmiera- Jērcēni originally named “Andrupe”, Association of cars common use originally named “Celms” and Association of cars common use in Jērcēni.

Many shops were located in the territory. Local government also provided local area with poorhouse. Electrical energy was received from Abuls power station in Brenguļi.

Defender division was established in Jērcēni in 1921.
Jērcēni can be proud for famous people originated from there -  Krauja Antons ( originally Balodis Antons) born in 1880, in Kraujiņas house. From 1912 – 1914 he worked as a literature critic in such editions like “Domas”, “Vārds”, “Jaunā Dienas lapa”, has written also about writings  of A. Upīts, Aspazija, V. Plūdonis, J. Jaunsudrabiņš, but most of all about written works of Rainis.

Writer and theatre critic Jānis Kārkliņš, born 1891, in Rēpeņi house. From 1921 till 1928 and from 1924 till 1928 he was managing editor as well as the author of the book “Latviešu Pūcesspieģelis”. There has been written down memories about chief of Valmiera Šana association and its activities from 1920s till 1930s. During this time, many observable and intimate cultural officials took part in this association.

Book publisher Dāvids Zeltiņš (D. Golts) put out theatre literatures, which are both originals and translated plays.

Professor Jānis Kupcis, born 1871, studied pharmacy in University Tērbata. He was professor of practical pharmacy in Latvian University since 1927 and has written around 30 scientific works in Latvian, German and Russian.

Well known is also Vīksna Jēkabs,knight of  Lāčplēsis War order who was born in September 2, 1887, in house “Skujiņas”. He took part in North Vidzeme release fighting against Bermont army as well as release of Latgale.



Geographical description

Relief
Relief is plain, its formed by gully Vidusgauja., Tālava lowland, West lowland of Seda and South – East lowland Burtnieki, which is featured by drumlin landscape with wide and plain hills. Bedrocks is covered on average 10-20 meters thick sedimentary rocks of quaternary, mainly sandstone of Burtnieki attendance, aleirolite and clay. Positive relief forms of Burtnieki lowland is formed by different roughness of grant and sand, limnoglacial silts and different colored teared parts of bedrocks. In the kernel of positive relief forms there are glaciotectonically deformed sands resulted from melted glacier waters – grant silt with shingle and brown morena sandy loam which is settled during in last but one ice-coat. Stony basic morena loamy soil or sandy loam predominantly forms upper layer of quaternary sedimentary rocks in forms of positive relief glacier hillsides.

Climate
Climate is more continental as in west of republic, mild cold and mild wet. Wet conditions are defined by location in gully to East from North-West Vidzeme uplift, which holds up part of rainfall. It is tangible in winter the cumulation of cold air. Rainfall does not go above 650mm per year. In warm period it is around 450mm per year, in cold period – from 100 till 150mm per year.
Average temperature in year – 5,5 C, in January average temperature from -6C till – 7 C; in July – from +16.5C- +17C .
Sum of active temperatures – 18000 till 18500C. None- frost period 135 days.  Last frost in spring May 15-20, first frost in autumn – September 25-29. Constant sheet of snow 25-35 cm. It keeps up 110-123 days.

Soil
Tipical Podsol soil with sandy loam and loamy soil ( in relief uplift) as well as turfy  Podsol gley soil with sandy loam and loamy soil mostly   is dominated in the civil parish Jērcēni.
Depending of soil and water regime conditions, also flora was formed. Temperature zone territory locates in forest under zone ( mixed forests). Relevant part of territory is covered with forests – mostly forests in normal rawness soils and forests in wet turf soils.
Most area is supplant pine-spruce forest and mixed forest also spruce – small leaf trees. 
Mostly there are high or moss mires in the territory of the civil parish . Turf reaction is sour ( ph 3-4). Environment is poorly with nutrients or oligotroph. Main plants are sfagns. Mire surface is bald or covered with small pine trees, grown full of cranberries, mire marsh tea, pine forest march tea, great bilberries, cowberries and cloudberries. Biggest high mires are Mežstrenči mire (2435, 15 ha) – located 1 km to West from city Strenči; Cālīši mire ( 2429,45 ha) – located 1 km from Ķeiži; Gorēni mire ( 2405, 39 ha) near Jēņi house.
Dominates also low mires, where the surface is a bit concaved. Turf reaction is almost neutral (ph6-7). Environment is rich of nutrients. Characteristically dense and multiform moss cover, grow sword grass and rush. Mires have become overgrown with trees; dominate mire birch – trees, black alders. Biggest low mires in the civil parish  are Muižnieku mire ( 2408,43 ha) – locates 5 km from city Strenči and 2 km to East from Jērcēni; Lāču mire or Jērcēnu mire ( 2406,56 ha) – locates 4 km to North – East from city Strenči and 3 km to South from Jērcēni.

Waters
River net is quite sparse in the civil parish. Small rivers mostly have poorly created flood-land type vally. Rivers belong to Gauja river basin; bed is straighten up and has become deeper. There is also the river Gauja in territory, 5km lengthwise.
River Liepupe is right affluent of the river Gauja (riverhead river Vīburupe, lower – Krāčupe) Length 19km (in the territory of civil parish – 11 km), basin area – 100,2km2.  It begins in the Rencēni civil parish, which is to the South of Lake Timba, the flows through Burtnieki plain near Ēvele, and disgorges in river Gauja downwards Strenči riffles. Biggest affluents locate in the territory of the civil parish: East (river Austra) stream (around 6km), river Andrupe (around 10km). The onliest lake in the civil parish is Kalnadzirnavu watermill lake (area 9, 1 ha) – locates above Andrupe estuary which flows into the river Lielupe.
Second longest river is Strenčupīte, river Jērcēnu – right affluent in river Gauja. Length 15km, basin area 34 km2, water cumulative flows per year – 0.008 km2, decline – 13 meters, starts to South-West from Seda moorland and flows into river Gauja , near Strenči. Basin locates in Seda plain.
There is river Sūnupe, (Šūnupe) in the North of the civil parish, which is the left affluent of the river Seda. Length 10 km (in the territory of civil parish – 3km).
River onflow is slow, as it belongs to plain rivers. Average relative decline is 0,1-0,7 meters per hour. Typical spring flood, in autumn – high waters (rapid, short-term increase of river water level). Unlike flood, high waters are irregular, mostly caused by intensive rain. Ice cover is not completely overlapped; it starts to grow out in December till the end of March.
Underground waters are important for water supply in populated areas. Water chemical composition mostly contains of calcium – magnum hydro carbonate waters.